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The 77 Concepts of Magnetism

by I-MANES®

I- MANES® collects and compiles the concepts and skills to help you learn and understand the basic principles of magnetism.


1) Air Gap
2 ) Aniso tropic
3 ) anisotropic
4) B / H curve
5 ) C.G.S.
6) Surface Field
7) Magnetic field ( B )
8) hysteresis curve
9) Magnetic Circuit
10) permeability coefficient (Pc )
11) Temperature Coefficient
12) Reversible Temperature Coefficient
13 ) Intrinsic Coercivity
14 ) demagnetization curve
15 ) magnetization curve
16 ) Density
17) Magnetic flux density
18 ) Residual flux density ( Brmax )
19 ) Dimensions
20 ) Electromagnet
21 ) Stabilization
22 ) Magnetic flux
23 ) Flushometer
24 ) Intrinsic Coercive Force (Hci )
25 ) The coercive force
26) Attraction Force
27) Strength demagnetization
28 ) magnetizing force ( H )
29 ) magnetomotiva Force ( mmf or F)
30) Gauss
31 ) gaussmeter
32) Gilbert
33 ) Degree of magnetization
34 ) Hysteresis
35 ) Magnet
36 ) Permanent Magnet
37 ) Induction (B)
38 ) Magnetic flux
39) Residual Induction ( Brmax )
40 ) Magnetic field ( H )
41 ) Isotropic
42) kilogauss
43 ) Line of magnetic force
44) ferromagnetic material
45 ) Material isotropic
46) Paramagnetic Materials
47 ) Maxwell (Mx )
48) MGOe
49 ) Oersted ( Oe )
50 ) Orientation
51 ) irreversible loss
52) Permeabilicación ( μ )
53 ) Permeability ( P )
54 ) Initial Permeability
55 ) relative permeability
56 ) Permeameter
57 ) Weight
58 ) Polarity
59 ) Magnetic Pole
60 ) North Pole
61 ) South Pole
62 ) Maximum Energy Product ( BHmax )
63) Regression
64) Reluctance (R)
65 ) Remanence ( Bd or Br)
66 ) Electrical resistivity
67 ) Plating / Coating
68 ) Saturation
69 ) Shunt ( Bypass )
70 ) IS
71) Sintering
72 ) Curie temperature (Tc)
73 ) Maximum Working Temperature ( Tmax )
74) Tesla
75 ) Rare Earths
76 ) Flow Tolerance or Dimensional Tolerance
77) Weber(Wb)

 

1) Air Gap ( " air space " or "between iron" ) - Is the distance or external space between one pole to the other pole of the magnet through nonmagnetic something like wood or plastic ( usually air ) .

2 ) Anisotropic - These are materials that have a magnetization direction "preferred" . The magnets are manufactured anisotropically exposed to a high magnetic field in a particular direction during the sintering process . - Neodymium magnets (NdFeB ) and Samarium- Cobalt ( SmCo ) magnets are
anisotropic .

3 ) anisotropic - means that the specific physical properties have different values in different material directions .

4) B / H Curve - The result of plotting the value of the magnetic field ( H ) applied to the resulting flux density ( B ) achieved. This curve describes the attributes of any magnetic material.

5 ) C.G.S. - Acronyms " centimeters , grams, second " measurement system .

6) Surface Field - ( surface Gauss ) - The strength of the magnetic field on the surface of the magnet, measured by a Gauss meter . A complete table of the area of land for all our stock magnets is available here : Table of-field.

7) Magnetic field ( B ) - is the force of magnetization or disimanación , measured in oersteds , and determines the ability of an electric current or a magnetic material to produce a magnetic field at a given point .
The magnetic field on the surface refers to the strength of Gauss.
For disks and axially magnetized cylinder , which is specified on the surface of the magnet, along the central axis of magnetization . For blocks which is specified on the surface of the magnet, also along the central axis of magnetization .
To the rings, there may be two values specified center vertical component of the magnetic field in the air at the center of the ring and ring specified by the vertical component of the magnetic field at the magnet surface midway between the inner and outer diameters .

8) hysteresis curve - the closed curve is obtained by measuring the induced magnetization M B or when subjected to a magnetic field H describing a complete cycle between the limits defined by the induction or the saturation magnetization of the first quadrant to the third quadrant .
A graph of force versus magnetization resulting magnetization (also called a curve B / H ) of the material as it successively magnetized to saturation , demagnetized , magnetized in the opposite direction and finally remagnetized . With recycle , then this frame is a closed loop that completely describes the characteristics of the magnetic material . The size and shape of this "loop" is important for hard and soft materials . Soft materials , which are generally used in alternative circuits , the area under this "loop" must be as thin as possible ( which is a measure of the energy loss ) . But with hard materials "fat " the bond , the stronger the magnet will be . The first quadrant of the loop (ie + and X + Y) is called the magnetization curve . It is of interest because it shows how much force should be applied magnetization to saturate a magnet. The second quadrant ( X + y) is called the demagnetization curve .

9) Magnetic Circuit - Consists of all elements , including air spaces and non-magnetic materials the magnetic flux of a magnet travels , from the north pole to the south pole of the magnet .

10) permeability coefficient (Pc ) - Also called the load line , B / H or "pending operation " of a magnet, it is the line of the demagnetization curve , where it operates a magnet determined . The value depends on the shape of the magnet , and the surrounding environment (some would say , how it is used in a circuit ) . In practical terms , it is a number that defines how difficult it is for the field lines that go from the north pole to the south pole of a magnet. A tall cylindrical magnet will have a high Pc, while a short , thin disk will have a low Pc .

11) Temperature Coefficient - describes the change in the magnetic properties with the temperature change . Normally expressed in % change per degree of temperature field
and is a factor that is used to calculate the reduction in magnetic flux corresponding to an increase in operating temperature. The loss in magnetic flux is restored when the operating temperature decreases .

12) reversible temperature coefficient - a measure of reversible changes in flow caused by temperature variations .

13) Intrinsic Coercivity - field value measured in Oerteds or A / m, indicating a material 's resistance to demagnetization . The maximum value is obtained after carrying the magnet to saturation.

14) demagnetization curve - is the curve section of the hysteresis loop in the second quadrant defining the main magnetic properties of a magnet. Describe the change in the magnetic induction or the emanation from the value of remanence to zero by applying a field in the negative, usually describing the behavior of magnetic characteristics in actual use . Also known as the B -H curve .

15) magnetization curve - the first quadrant portion of the hysteresis curve
( B / H ) curve of a magnetic material .

16 ) Density - Specific weight of the material ( g/cm3 )

17 ) Magnetic flux density - . It is a way of defining the field of induction as the number of lines of force per unit area , usually measured in Gauss ( CGS ) . One of the magnetic flux lines per square centimeter is one Maxwell.

18 ) Residual flux density ( Brmax ) - Also called " residual induction " . This is the magnetic induction of a magnetic material is saturated after the magnetizing field is removed. This is the point where the hysteresis loop crosses the B axis at zero magnetizing force , and represents the maximum output of material flow given magnet . By definition, this point occurs at zero air space , and therefore can not be seen in the practical use of magnet materials .

19) Dimensions: - The physical size of a magnet including any coating or lining.

20) Electromagnet - A magnet comprises a solenoid with an iron core which has a magnetic field only during the time of current flow through the solenoid .

21 ) Stabilization - The process of exposing a magnet or magnetic assembly at elevated temperature or external magnetic fields to demagnetize a predetermined level . Once the magnet will suffer any future degradation when exposed to the level of influence of demagnetization .

22 ) Magnetic flux - is an artificial but measurable concept that has evolved in an attempt to describe the "flow" of a magnetic field . When the magnetic induction , B, is distributed evenly and it is normal to the surface A, the flux Ø = BA . Setting the number of " magnetic lines of force " , measured in Gauss or Tesla. These lines can be displayed using iron powder. When the magnetic field is normal to the surface is then flow Ø = BA

23) Flushometer - magnetic flowmeter apparatus which functions as the operational amplifier .

24) Intrinsic coercive force (Hci) - Indicates the materials resistance " to demagnetization . Equals demagnetization force reducing intrinsic induction , Bi, in the material to zero after saturation magnetization , measured in oersteds .

25) Coercive Force - Hc is the magnetic field required to reduce the induction B or the magnetization M to zero. Is measured in Oersteds or Ampere / meter and serves to measure the strength of a magnetic material.

26 ) Attraction Force - The force required to pull a magnet free from a flat steel plate using force perpendicular to the surface. The limit of the clamping force of a magnet. The tensile force are real data set acquired through tests using our test of the strength of the state - of-the -art. A complete table of traction magnets for all our actions is available here : Pull Force Table .
We test for two different values of tensile strength using two different configurations. Read more about these two tensile forces here .

27) Strength demagnetization - a magnetizing force , usually in the opposite direction to magnetize the force used in the first place. Shock, vibration and temperature can also be demagnetization forces .

28 ) magnetizing force ( H ) - The magnetomotive force per unit length of the magnet, measured in Oersted ( CGS ) or ampere- turns per meter ( SI) . Maxwell - The C.G.S. total magnetic flux unit , measured in lines of force per square centimeter.

29 ) magnetomotiva Force ( mmf or F) - The magnetic potential difference between any two points . Analogous to voltage in electrical circuits. This tends to produce a magnetic field. Commonly produced by a current flowing through a coil of wire . Measured in Gilbert ( CGS ) or Ampere turns ( SI) .

30 ) Gauss - A gauss (G ) is a unit of measurement of the magnetic field cegesimal System of Units, named after the German mathematician and physicist Karl Friedrich Gauss ( 1777-1855 ) who applied mathematical principles to a magnetic field . Thus was born the Gauss rating for measuring the density of the magnetic force .
1 G = 10 ( -4 ) T
1 mT = 10 G

31 ) gaussmeter - An instrument used to measure the instantaneous value of magnetic induction , B , is usually measured in Gauss ( CGS ) .

32 ) Gilbert - The unit of magnetomotive force , F , in the CGS system .

33 ) Degree of Magnetization - neodymium (NdFeB ) are classified by the magnetic material from which they are manufactured. In general terms, the higher the grade of material , the stronger the magnet. Neodymium magnets currently vary in degree of N27 to N52 . The theoretical limit of neodymium magnets is grade N64 . The rating of most of our actions magnets N42 N42 is because we feel it provides the optimum balance between strength and cost. We also have a wide range of sizes of N52 grade for customers who need the strongest permanent magnets available

34 ) Hysteresis - is the ability of a magnetic meterial retain magnetic strength when subjected to a force of demagnetization . The area of the curve represents the difference , hysteresis loss , measured at low frequency, between stored energy and energy released per unit volume of material per cycle .

35 ) Magnet - A magnet is an object made of certain materials which create a magnetic field . Each magnet has at least one north pole and a south pole. By convention , we say that the magnetic field lines leave the north end of a magnet and enter the South end of a magnet. This is an example of a magnetic dipole ( " di " means two , therefore , two poles )

If you take a magnet and break it into two pieces , each piece will have a north pole and a south pole. If you take one of those pieces and breaks into two, each of the smaller pieces will have a north pole and a south pole . No matter how small the pieces become the magnet, each piece will have a north pole and a south pole . It has been shown that it is possible to end up with a single North pole or south pole one , which is a monopole ( "mono" means one or single , thus one pole ) .

36 ) Permanent Magnet - A magnet that retains its magnetism after being removed from a magnetic field. A permanent magnet is " always on" . Neodymium magnets are permanent magnets .

37) Induction, (B) - The magnetic flux per unit area of a section normal to the flow direction. Gauss measured in C.G.S. System units.

38 ) Magnetic flux - is the force of magnetization or demagnetization , measured in Oersteds , which determines the capacity of an electric current or a magnetic material to induce a magnetic field at a given point .
The magnetic field induced by a field strength H, at a given point . Is the vector sum at each point within the substance , the magnetic field intensity and the resultant intrinsic induction . Magnetic induction is the flux per unit area normal to the direction of the magnetic path .

39 ) Residual Induction ( Brmax ) - Also called " residual flux density " . This is the magnetic induction of a magnetic material is saturated after the magnetizing field is removed. This is the point where the hysteresis loop crosses the B axis at zero magnetizing force , and represents the maximum output of material flow given magnet . By definition, this point occurs at zero air space , and therefore can not be seen in the practical use of magnet materials .

40 ) Magnetic field strength (H) - the magnetization or demagnetization force is a measure of the amount magnetic vector which determines the capacity of an electric current or a magnetic body for inducing a magnetic field at a given point ; measured in oersteds .

41 ) Isotropic - is considered a magnet is isotropic if its properties are independent of its orientation. The particles are not randomly oriented . You have no preferred direction of magnetic orientation , which allows magnetized in any direction.

42 ) Kilogauss - One kilogauss = 1000 Gauss = Maxwell per square centimeter .

43 ) Line of magnetic force - an imaginary line in a magnetic field , which , at every point, has the direction of the magnetic flux at that point.

44) ferromagnetic material - a material which is either a source of magnetic flux and magnetic flux conductor . Any ferromagnetic material must have some component of iron, nickel, or cobalt .

45) isotropic material - a material that can be magnetized along any axis or direction ( a magnetically non-oriented ) . The opposite of anisotropic magnet .

46 ) paramagnetic materials - Materials that are attracted to magnetic fields (wood, plastic , aluminum, etc. ) . A material having a permeability slightly greater than 1.

47 ) Maxwell (Mx ) - The CGS unit used to measure the magnetic flux. The unit was previously called line . The unit name honors James Clerk Maxwell , who presented the unified theory of electromagnetism , was established by the IEC in 1930. Also is the unit of magnetic flux in Gauss measurement system . One maxwell is one line of magnetic flux.

48 ) MGOe - Mega ( million) Gauss oersteds . Unit of measure commonly used to assert that the maximum energy product for a given material . See maximum energy product .

49 ) Oersted ( Oe ) - Unit of magnetic field strength , H , in the electromagnetic system GSM . 1 Oersted ( Oe ) = 0.8 A / cm .
The English system equivalent is Ampere turns per inch (1 Oersted equals 79.58 A / m ) . The unit S.I. is Ampere turns per meter .

50 ) Orientation - is used to describe the direction of magnetization of a material. Address orientation - the direction in which an anisotropic magnet to be magnetized in order to achieve optimum magnetic properties .

51 ) irreversible loss - irreversible changes that occur when a magnet is partially or completely Demagnetizing because of exposure to low or high temperatures , shock, vibration or other external factors such as demagnetization fields . Al reimantar magnets, these losses are recovered , this is a partial demagnetization of the magnet . These losses are only recoverable by remagnetization . Magnets can be stabilized against irreversible losses by partial demagnetization induced by temperature cycles or by external magnetic fields.

52 ) Permeabilicación ( μ ) - The ratio of the magnetic flux density of a material to produce magnetizing force ( B / H ) . The magnetic permeability of a vacuum ( μo ) is 4π × 10-7 N/Amp2 .

53 ) Permeability (P) - A measure of the relative ease with which the flow passes through a material or space provided . It is calculated by dividing the magnetic flux magnetomotive force . Permeability is the reciprocal of the reluctance .

54 ) Initial Permeability
Is the ratio of the field B and H, when the field as H approaches zero. More useful is the relative permeability or permeability ratio enters the material and the air . Is often used to characterize the soft ferromagnetic cores for transformers.

55 ) Relative Permeability - The permeability ratio half that of a vacuum. In C.G.S. system , the permeability is equal to 1 in a vacuum by definition. Air permeability is also for all practical purposes equal to 1 in the CGS system .

56) permeameter - Apparatus used to calculate the permeability of low permeability cores , measuring the characteristics of a material.
57 ) Weight - The weight of a single magnet

58 ) Polarity - The characteristic of a particular terminal in a particular location of a permanent magnet. Distinguishes the north of the South Pole .

59 ) Magnetic Pole - A concentrated area where magnetic flux lines .

60 ) North Pole - the north pole of a magnet attracted by the magnetic North Pole of the earth. Search The north pole is identified by the letter N. By accepted convention , the flow transit routes from the north pole to the south pole .

61 ) South Pole - The south pole of a magnet is attracted to the geographic South Pole of the Earth . This search south pole is identified by the letter S. By accepted convention , the flow transit routes from the north pole to the south pole .

62 ) Maximum Energy Product ( BHmax ) - The magnetic field strength at the point of maximum energy product of a magnetic material . The field strength of fully saturated magnetic material measured in Mega Gauss Oersted , MGOe .

63) Regression - driving elements in a magnetic circuit to provide a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux .

64) Reluctance (R) - A measure of the relative resistance of a material to the flow passage . Is calculated by dividing the magnetomotive force by the magnetic flux . The reluctance is the reciprocal of permeability.

65 ) Remanence ( Bd or Br) - is the magnetic induction in a magnetic circuit remains after removal of a magnetizing force applied .
Br is calculated in Tesla (T) , millitesla ( mT ) or Gauss (G ) corresponding to the remaining magnetic induction in the magnetic material after being magnetized to saturation and prepared for final use .

66) Electrical resistivity - is the electrical resistance to current flow per unit length of the material p ( ohm.cm )

67 ) Coating / Plating - Most Coated Neodymium magnets are in order to protect the material from corrosion magnet . Neodymium magnets are mostly composed of neodymium, iron and boron. The magnet iron rusts if not isolated from the environment by some kind of coating or coating. Most neodymium magnets we stock are triple plated in nickel-copper- nickel, but some are gold plated , nickel silver or black , while others are covered with epoxy , plastic or rubber.

68 ) Saturation - is the maximum value of the magnetization , based on the decrease in permeability with increasing magnetization strength . Flux density is a maximum value of magnetization , magnetic polarization higher than can be obtained from a magnet. An inductor, corresponds to the lower inductance current.
The state in which an increase in magnetization force does not produce any further increase in the magnetic flux density in a magnetic material.

69 ) Shunt ( Bypass ) - A piece of soft iron temporarily added between the poles of a magnetic circuit to protect demagnetization influences . Also known as referral. There is no need for neodymium and other modern magnets . A soft iron piece temporarily added between the pole of a magnetic circuit to protect demagnetizing influences . Also called a manager. There is no need for neodymium and other modern magnets .

70 ) IS - Abbreviation for " International System " . It refers to the international standard system of units . Also known as the MKS system .

71) Sintering - The heat treatment at elevated temperatures, whereby the decrease in volume presswork and homogenized . On Ferrites, approx. 12S0 1200 C to C and the rare earths, approx. 1050 C to 1200 C.

72 ) Curie temperature (Tc) - The temperature at which a magnet loses all of its magnetic properties. Is temperatua above which ferromagnetic materials become paramagnetic , losing substantially all of its permanent magnetic properties . Typically depends on the chemical composition of the magnetic material .

73 ) Maximum Working Temperature ( Tmax ) - is the maximum temperature of exposure that a magnet can withstand without structural changes or instability in their properties , also known as maximum service temperature to be continuously exposed to without long-range instability or significant structural changes.

74 ) Tesla - The SI unit for magnetic induction ( flux density ) . A Tesla is equal to 10,000 gauss .

75 ) Rare Earth - Commonly used to describe the high energy magnetic material such as NdFeB (Neodymium - Iron - Boron) and SmCo ( Samarium- Cobalt) .

76 ) or tolerance Tolerance dimensional flow - is the calibration and the subsidy , given as a range allowed in the nominal dimensions of a magnet over. The aim tolerance is an allowable range specified by imperfections in manufacturing. In general, the tolerance of the magnetic flux is typically within ± 10%. However, in some applications it is necessary to achieve a smaller tolerance .

77 ) Weber ( Wb ) - The unit of magnetic flux and magnetic flux in the International System of Units equal to the magnetic flux passing through a circuit of one turn, produces in it an electromotive force of 1 volt if it is canceled this flow in 1 second uniform decrease . It is symbolically represented by Wb . The name of this unit was given in honor of the German physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber.

I-MANES® 2013

The 77 Concepts of Magnetism

by i-manes®

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